Fluid and Electrolyte Balance The kidneys are essential for regulating the volume and composition of bodily fluids. This page outlines key regulatory systems involving the kidneys for controlling volume, sodium and potassium concentrations, and the pH of bodily fluids. A most critical concept for you to understand is how water and sodium regulation are integrated to defend the body against all possible disturbances in the volume and osmolarity of bodily fluids.
Health Promotion Health promotion activities in the area of fluid, electrolyte, and acid base imbalance focus on primarily in client teaching. For examples client with renal failure must avoid excess of intake of fluid, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Though diet education these clients learn the types of food to avoid and suitable volume of fluid they are permitted daily.
Weight should be determined at the some time each day with the some scale after the clients voids; the scale should be calibrated each day or routinely.
Intake and Output records provide additional information about fluid balance; intake and output measurements when examined for trends can indicate whether excretion of fluid through the kidneys has diminished. Enteral Replacement Of Fluids Oral replacement of fluids and electrolytes is appropiates as long as that client not so physiologically unstable that oral fluid can not be replaced rapidly.
Parenteral Replacement Of Fluid and Electrolytes Fluid and infusion may be replaced through infusion directly into blood rather than via the digestive system; parenteral replacement includes total parenteral nutrition TPNIV fluid and electrolyte theraphy Crystalloidand blood complement colloid administration.
Nursing History The nursing assessment begins with a client history, which is designed to reveal any risk factors or preexisting condition that may cause or contribute to a disturbances of hold, electrolyte, and acid base balances.
Infants are not protected from fluid loss because they ingest and excrete to relatively grater daily volume than adults. Horne and other, Therefore they are at a greater risk for fluid deficites FVDs and hyperosmolar imbalance because body water loss is proportionately grater per kilogram of weigh.
Acute Illness Recent surgery, held and chest trauma, shocck and second or third degree burns are condition that place clients at high risk for fluid, electrolyte and acid base alteration.
In addition, after surgery clients can exhibit many acid base changes. The client who is reluctant to breathe deeply and caugh may develop respiratory acidosis due to retained PaCO2.
First, plasma leaves the intravascular space and becomes trapped edema. It accompanied by a loss of serum proteins. Second, plasma and interstitial fluids are lost as burn exudates.
Third, water vapor and heat are lost in proportion to the amount of skin that is burned away. Fourth, blood leaks from damaged capillaries, adding to the intravascular fluid volume loss. Last, sodium and water shift into the cells, further compromising extra cellular fluid volume.
Cancer The types of fluid and electrolyte imbalances that are observed in a client with cancer depend on the type and progresion of the cancer, client with cancer at risk for fluid and electrolyte imbalances related to the side effects, e.
Cardiovascular disease In the client with cardiovascular disease a diminished cardiac output reduces kidney perfusion, causing the client to experience decease in urinary output. The client will retrain sodium and waterresulting in circulatory over load, and run the risk of developing pulmonary edema.
Renal disorders Kidney disease alters fluid and electrolyte balance by tile abnormal retention of sodium. Chloride, potassium and water extra cellular compartment. Metabolic acidosis result when hydrogen ions are retained due to decreased renal function. Gastrointestinal disturbances Gastrointestinal an nasogastric suctioning result in a loss of fluid, potassium, and chloride ions.
Environmental factor The nurse should also include certain environmental factors in nursing history, client have a participated in vigorous exercise or who have become exposed to extremes may have clinical sign of fluid and electrolyte.
Diet Dietary intake of fluids ,salt, potassium, calcium, magnesium, necessary carbohydrate and protein help maintain normal fluidselectrolyte and acid base status.
Life style If a client already has preexisting medical risk ,such as a history of smoking or alcohol consumption ,they can further impair the client ability to adapt to fluid, electrolyte and acid base alteration.
Medication The nurse will assess the client knowledge of side effect and adherence to medication schedule and the client knowledge of potential side effect over. Physical assessment A trough examination is necessary, because fluid and electrolyte imbalance or acid base disturbance can affect all body system.Concept: Humans Exemplar Acid base Basic regulation- normal presentation Fluid & Electrolytes Basic Fluid balance Basic Electrolyte Balance Metabolism Basic Nutrition, Nutritional Assessment across the life span Intracranial Regulation.
Fluids and Electrolytes - The EASY Guide to Understand Fluids and Electrolytes!: Basic + Advanced concepts made incredibly easy!! by Dr. Russell My goal is to provide you with straight forward easy to understand information.
Electrolytes may be lost through vomiting, diarrhea, or hemorrhage, thus upsetting the body’s fluid and electrolyte balance. Tests to determine disorders in electrolyte balance include blood tests, such as the blood urea nitrogen [BUN], the complete blood count [CBC], and evaluation of arterial blood gases [ABG], as well as urinalysis [UA].
Homeostasis - Part 4: fluid balance. 25 April, In this article, the last in a four-part series, we explore fluid maintenance with particular reference to disorders of the pituitary gland. Fluid management techniques and related nursing care are also covered.
The external fluid and electrolyte balancebetween the body and its environment is defined by the intake of fluid and electrolytes versus the output from the kidneys, the gastrointestinal tract, and the skin.
Fluid-Electrolyte module is designed to allow students to learn key concepts and develop specific skills in the management of common fluid and electrolyte and single acid/base disorders and in prevention and management.