HotmailYahoo …and seriously…. But there is another old school tool that I think has seen its best days behind it.
If you're a jQuery user, they have something similar called Deferreds. Although promise implementations follow a standardized behaviour, their overall APIs differ. Here's how you create a promise: Do something within the callback, perhaps async, then call resolve if everything worked, otherwise call reject.
The benefit of Error objects is they capture a stack trace, making debugging tools more helpful. Here's how you use that promise: Both are optional, so you can add a callback for the success or failure case only.
Although, as I mentioned, jQuery's Deferreds are a bit … unhelpful. Thankfully you can cast them to standard promises, which is worth doing as soon as possible: Since it has a then method, Promise. However, sometimes deferreds pass multiple arguments to their callbacks, for example: Also, be aware that jQuery doesn't follow the convention of passing Error objects into rejections.
Complex async code made easier Right, let's code some things. Say we want to: Start a spinner to indicate loading Fetch some JSON for a story, which gives us the title, and urls for each chapter Add title to the page Fetch each chapter Add the story to the page Stop the spinner … but also tell the user if something went wrong along the way.
We'll want to stop the spinner at that point too, else it'll keep on spinning, get dizzy, and crash into some other UI.
Multiple data fetches, then do something when it's all done. To start with, let's deal with fetching data from the network: Chaining then isn't the end of the story, you can chain thens together to transform values or run additional async actions one after another.
Transforming values You can transform values simply by returning the new value: We could alter our get function to use the JSON responseTypebut we could also solve it in promises land: Queuing asynchronous actions You can also chain thens to run async actions in sequence.
When you return something from a then callback, it's a bit magic. If you return a value, the next then is called with that value. This is when promises really start to stand out from simple callback patterns.
You could even make a shortcut method to get chapters: Error handling As we saw earlier, then takes two arguments, one for success, one for failure or fulfill and reject, in promises-speak: Note that the two code examples above do not behave the same, the latter is equivalent to: Promise rejections skip forward to the next then with a rejection callback or catchsince it's equivalent.
With then func1, func2func1 or func2 will be called, never both.
But with then func1. Here's the above as a flowchart because I love flowcharts:Build, innovate, and scale with Google Cloud Platform. Collaborate and be more productive with G Suite.
See what’s possible with Google Cloud. Creating a Word document in one paper size doesn't mean you are limited to that size paper and presentation when you print it out. Microsoft Word makes it easy to change the paper size when it's time to print.
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Stable APIs; Dev APIs; Experimental APIs; API conventions; Important: Chrome will be removing support for Chrome Apps on Windows, Mac, and Linux. Chrome OS will continue to support Chrome Apps. Additionally, Chrome and the Web Store will .