Home Ocean Facts What does an oceanographer do? What does an oceanographer do?
Early history[ edit ] Humans first acquired knowledge of the waves and currents of the seas and oceans in pre-historic times. Observations on tides were recorded by Aristotle and Strabo. Early exploration of the oceans was primarily for cartography and mainly limited to its surfaces and of the animals that fishermen brought up in nets, though depth soundings by lead line were taken.
Franklin measured water temperatures during several Atlantic crossings and correctly explained the Gulf Stream's cause. Franklin and Timothy Folger printed the first map of the Gulf Stream in — James Rennell wrote the first scientific textbooks on oceanography, detailing the current flows of the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
During a voyage around the Cape of Good Hope inhe mapped "the banks and currents at the Lagullas ". He was also the first to understand the nature of the intermittent current near the Isles of Scillynow known as Rennell's Current.
Robert FitzRoy published a Oceanography study guide report of Beagle's three voyages. In — Edward Forbes undertook dredging in the Aegean Sea that founded marine ecology.
The first superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory —Matthew Fontaine Maury devoted his time to the study of marine meteorology, navigationand charting prevailing winds and currents.
His textbook Physical Geography of the Sea was one of the first comprehensive oceanography studies. Many nations sent oceanographic observations to Maury at the Naval Observatory, where he and his colleagues evaluated the information and distributed the results worldwide.
Almost nothing was known of the ocean depths. The British Royal Navy 's efforts to chart all of the world's coastlines in the midth century reinforced the vague idea that most of the ocean was very deep, although little more was known.
As exploration ignited both popular and scientific interest in the polar regions and Africa, so too did the mysteries of the unexplored oceans. The seminal event in the founding of the modern science of oceanography was the — Challenger expedition.
As the first true oceanographic cruise, this expedition laid the groundwork for an entire academic and research discipline. Challengerleased from the Royal Navy, was modified for scientific work and equipped with separate laboratories for natural history and chemistry.
Challenger during the years — Murray, who supervised the publication, described the report as "the greatest advance in the knowledge of our planet since the celebrated discoveries of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries".
He went on to found the academic discipline of oceanography at the University of Edinburghwhich remained the centre for oceanographic research well into the 20th century.
He tried to map out the world's ocean currents based on salinity and temperature observations, and was the first to correctly understand the nature of coral reef development. In the late 19th century, other Western nations also sent out scientific expeditions as did private individuals and institutions.
The first purpose built oceanographic ship, Albatros, was built in InFridtjof Nansen allowed his ship, Fram, to be frozen in the Arctic ice. This enabled him to obtain oceanographic, meteorological and astronomical data at a stationary spot over an extended period.
The first acoustic measurement of sea depth was made in Between and the "Meteor" expedition gathered 70, ocean depth measurements using an echo sounder, surveying the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Sverdrup, Johnson and Fleming published The Oceans in which was a major landmark. The Sea in three volumes, covering physical oceanography, seawater and geology edited by M.
Hill was published inwhile Rhodes Fairbridge 's Encyclopedia of Oceanography was published in The theory of seafloor spreading was developed in by Harry Hammond Hess.
The Ocean Drilling Program started in OCEANOGRAPHY Study Guide Chapters 8, 9 & Chapter 8: Wave and Water Dynamics What are waves? What causes waves? How do waves move? Draw a diagram to show the characteristics of an orbital wave.
Include particle motion and label wave base. (Fig. ). Oceanography Study Guide 2 - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
study guide. Oceanography is the scientific study of the oceans and its contents.
Being so huge in terms of surface coverage, there is so much to learn. Get to understand what you know and don’t in the quiz below. iv Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe Study Guide for Content Mastery This Study Guide for Content Mastery for Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe will help you learn more easily from your.
Oceanography includes study in marine physics, chemistry and geology and develops from study of large-scale global systems such as ocean circulation to topical local issues. This test will cover four chapters from Ch.
6 to It will focus on the ocean processes and interaction with other systems. It will focus on the science, not the environmental aspect of oceanography. Concepts to know: Water and SeaWater Air- Sea interaction Ocean Circulation Waves and water dynami.