Beginning in the 12th to 14th centuries, first one, then the other, swept through Europe, changing manners and morals, governments and cultures, as they went.
John XXIII, after being threatened with an investigation of his life, promised to resign if his rivals would do the same. Shortly after, however, he fled from Constance, hoping that this act would deprive the council of its power and lead to its dissolution. The emperor insisted that the council continue, and it issued the decree Sacrosanctaaffirming that a general council of the church is superior to the pope.
It further decreed that frequent councils are essential for the proper government of the church.
Gregory XII agreed to abdicateprovided that he was permitted officially to convoke the council and so assert the legitimacy of his own line of popes, to which the council agreed.
Benedict XIII, who refused to resign, was also deposed. The authenticity of the decree Sacrosancta has been a matter of great dispute among scholars. The council condemned 45 propositions of Wycliffe and 30 of Hus, who was declared an obstinate heretic, delivered to the secular power, and burned at the stake.
Furthermore, the council adopted seven reform decrees, and Martin V concluded concordats on other points, chiefly methods of taxation, with the various nations. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:Resources/Collections of History Lesson Plans NEH Lesson Plans Web-based lesson plans for U.S.
history and American government teachers from the National Endowment for the Humanities EDSITEment. See also History and Social Studies and Introduction to Advanced Placement U.S. History Lessons.
ph-vs.com Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Learn. The Protestant Reformation (Opens a modal) Introduction to the Protestant Reformation: Setting the stage (Opens a modal) Introduction to the Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther (Opens a modal) Introduction to the Protestant Reformation: Varieties of Protestantism.
Heretics and Heroes: How Renaissance Artists and Reformation Priests Created Our World (The Hinges of History) [Thomas Cahill] on ph-vs.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In Volume VI of his acclaimed Hinges of History series, Thomas Cahill guides us through a time so full of innovation that the Western world would not again experience its like until the twentieth century: the new.
The Reformation and the Renaissance The Protestant Reformation that shook the church in the early sixteenth century in Europe was an important event in the Renaissance. It not only led to the outbreak of violent religious wars, but broke the bond between the papacy and state.
The Renaissance versus the Reformation "I feel, sometimes, as the Renaissance man must have felt in finding new riches at every point and in the certainty that unexplored areas of knowledge and experience await at every turn" Polykarp Kusch.
The renewal was also largely centred on religion, which is why the Reformation would happen in the north rather than in Italy.
THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE The word Renaissance means "rebirth", specifically of ancient classical art, a revival of the Greco-Roman culture.